Diabetes is an illness in which blood glucose (sugar) levels in your body are expensive. Diabetes can trigger major health issue, including heart attack or stroke, blindness, problems during pregnancy, and kidney failure. About 15 million women in the United States have diabetes, or about 1 in every 9 adult females.1
What is diabetes?
Diabetes is an illness caused by high levels of blood glucose (glucose) in your body. This can occur when your body does not make insulin or does not use insulin properly.
Insulin is a hormone made in the pancreas, an organ near your stomach. Insulin helps the glucose from food enter into your body’s cells for energy. If your body does not make adequate insulin, or your body does not utilize the insulin correctly, the glucose builds and remains up in your blood.
In time, this additional glucose can cause diabetes or prediabetes. Diabetes puts you at risk for other major and life-threatening health issue, such as heart problem, kidney, stroke, and blindness damage.
What are the different types of diabetes?
The three primary kinds of diabetes are:
• Type 1 diabetes. Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease, meaning the body’s immune (defense) system attacks and destroys the cells in the pancreas that make insulin. If you have type 1 diabetes, your body does not make insulin, so you need to take insulin every day.
• Type 2 diabetes. You can get type 2 diabetes at any age, even throughout youth. With type 2 diabetes, your body does not make adequate insulin or is not able to use its own insulin properly.
• Gestational diabetes. Gestational diabetes is a type of diabetes that happens just throughout pregnancy. Gestational diabetes can trigger health issue for the infant and the mother if not managed. Although gestational diabetes goes away after your baby is born, having diabetes during pregnancy raises your risk for type 2 diabetes in the future.2 Learn more about gestational diabetes at the National Diabetes Info Clearinghouse.
Am I at danger for diabetes?
A risk aspect is something that puts you at a greater threat for a disease compared to the average individual.
Threat factors for type 1 diabetes in ladies and girls include:.
• Age: It often establishes in childhood.
• Household health history: Having a moms and dad or brother or sis with type 1 diabetes.
• Particular viral infections or illnesses, such as coxsackie virus B (a typical cause of hand, mouth, and foot illness), rotavirus (also called stomach influenza), and mumps3
• Where you live: It is more typical in individuals who reside in cooler climates.
Danger factors for type 2 diabetes in ladies and women consist of:4
• Obese or obesity: Body mass index (BMI) of 25 or greater for adults. Discover your BMI. Kids and teenagers weighing above the 85th percentile based on their BMI are at risk for type 2 diabetes. • Discover BMI charts for teens and kids.
• Older age: 45 or older. After menopause, females are at greater danger for weight gain, particularly more weight around the waist, which raises the risk for type 2 diabetes.
• Family health history: Having a mom, daddy, bro, or sibling with diabetes.
• Race/ethnicity: Household background of African-American, American Indian/Alaska Native, Hispanic, Asian-American, and Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander.
• Having a baby that weighed 9 pounds or more at birth.
• Having diabetes throughout pregnancy (gestational diabetes).
• High blood pressure: Taking medicine for high blood pressure or having a high blood pressure of 140/90 mmHg or greater. (Both numbers are very important. You have high blood pressure.) if one or both numbers are normally high.
• High cholesterol: HDL cholesterol of 35 mg/dL or lower and triglycerides of 250 mg/dL or higher.
• Absence of physical activity: Females who are active less than three times a week.
• Having polycystic ovary syndrome ( PCOS).
• Individual history of cardiovascular disease or stroke.
If you have any of these danger elements, talk to your medical professional about methods to decrease your danger for diabetes. You can likewise take the Diabetes Danger Test and talk about the outcomes with your doctor.
Who gets diabetes?
Type 1 diabetes normally establishes in children and young people, however it can happen at any age.5 It is more common in non-Hispanic whites and non-Hispanic blacks than in Hispanic populations.6 About 5% of individuals with diabetes have type 1 diabetes.1 If you have a parent or brother or sister with the illness you may be more likely to establish type 1 diabetes.
Type 2 diabetes is more common in adults, specifically in individuals who are 45 and older, have a family history of diabetes, or have obese or obesity. About 90– 95% of individuals with diabetes have type 2 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes is ending up being more typical in teens and kids, which may be because more of them have obese and obesity.7,8,9
Do females of color need to fret about diabetes?
Yes. It is more typical for certain racial and ethnic groups to have diabetes. This impacts women who are:
• American Indian/Alaska Native women have the highest rate of diabetes among all ethnic and racial groups in the United States. It is more than twice as common for American Indian/Alaska Native females to be detected with diabetes compared to white ladies.
• Black. Diabetes is almost twice as typical in non-Hispanic black females compared to non-Hispanic white females.1
• Hispanic. It is more typical for Hispanic women than non-Hispanic white women to be identified with diabetes. Amongst Hispanic females in the United States, it may be basically common for ladies of different heritage groups to be detected with diabetes.1 For instance, Mexican-American ladies have practically two times the rate of diabetes medical diagnosis compared to white women. But Cuban-American ladies have a lower rate compared to white women.1
• Asian. Diabetes is the fifth-leading cause of death for Asian or Pacific Islander females in the United States.10 However, it may be more or less typical for women of various Asian heritage groups to be identified with diabetes. One in every 33 Chinese-American women is detected with diabetes compared to 1 in every 10 Asian Indian females.1 It is likewise more common for Asian females to establish gestational diabetes compared to white ladies.11
How does diabetes impact ladies in a different way than guys?
Diabetes impacts ladies and men in almost equivalent numbers. However, diabetes impacts females in a different way than males.
Compared with men with diabetes, women with diabetes have:12
• A greater threat for heart illness. Heart problem is the most typical complication of diabetes. Discover more about the link in between heart problem and stroke and diabetes in women.
• Lower survival rates and a poorer lifestyle after cardiac arrest.
• A higher danger for loss of sight.
• A higher risk for depression. Depression, which affects twice as many ladies as guys, likewise raises the threat for diabetes in women.13
Does diabetes raise my threat for other illness?
Yes. The longer you have type 2 diabetes, the higher your danger for developing serious medical issues from diabetes. If you smoke and have diabetes, you are even more most likely to develop serious medical problems from diabetes, compared with individuals who have diabetes and do not smoke.14
The extra glucose in the blood that leads to diabetes can damage your nerves and blood vessels. Nerve damage from diabetes can cause pain or a permanent loss of sensation in your hands, feet, and other parts of your body.15
Blood vessel damage from diabetes can also result in:
• Heart disease.
• Kidney failure.
• Leg or foot amputation.
• Hearing loss.
Ladies with diabetes are likewise at higher risk for:
• Problems getting pregnant.
• Problems throughout pregnancy, including possible health issues for you and your child.
• Duplicated urinary and vaginal infections.
What causes diabetes?
Scientists do not know the exact reasons for type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Researchers do understand that acquiring certain genes from your family can raise your danger for developing diabetes. Obesity is also a major danger factor for type 2 diabetes. Smoking cigarettes can also trigger type 2 diabetes. If you currently have diabetes 16, and the more you smoke the higher your danger for type 2 diabetes and other serious health problems.
Weight reduction can assist control type 2 diabetes so that you are healthier. Stopping smoking can also help you control your blood sugar level levels. Being a healthy weight and not smoking can help all women be much healthier.
But, obesity and cigarette smoking do not constantly cause diabetes. Some ladies who are overweight or overweight or smoke never establish diabetes. Likewise, women who are a regular weight or only slightly overweight can develop diabetes if they have other danger factors, such as a household history of diabetes.
What are the signs and symptoms of diabetes?
Type 1 diabetes signs are normally more severe and may establish all of a sudden.
Type 2 diabetes may not trigger any signs or signs in the beginning. Signs can establish gradually in time. You may not discover them right now.
Typical symptoms and signs of type 1 and type 2 diabetes include:
• Feeling more worn out than normal.
• Extreme thirst.
• Urinating more than usual.
• Fuzzy vision.
• Feeling hungrier than normal.
• Losing weight without attempting.
• Sores that are slow to recover.
• Dry, itchy skin.
• Tingling in the feet or hands.
• More infections, such as urinary system infections and vaginal yeast infections, than normal.
Do I need to be checked for diabetes?
Perhaps. You must be checked for diabetes if you are in between 40 and 70 years of ages and are overweight or overweight. If you also have other threat aspects for diabetes, your medical professional may suggest screening earlier than age 40. Likewise, speak with your doctor about diabetes screening if you have signs or signs of diabetes. Your physician will use a blood test to see if you have diabetes.
You can start making healthy modifications to your consuming habits and getting more physical activity to assist avoid diabetes if the screening reveals that your blood sugar levels are high.
What is prediabetes?
Prediabetes indicates your blood glucose (glucose) level is greater than regular, however it is lower than the diabetes variety. It likewise implies you are at greater threat of getting type 2 diabetes and heart problem.
As lots of as 27 million American women have prediabetes.17 If you have prediabetes, you can make healthy changes, such as doing some kind of physical activity on many days, to reduce your threat of getting diabetes and go back to typical blood glucose levels. If you weigh 200 pounds) can lower your threat for type 2 diabetes by more than half, losing 7% of your body weight (or 14 pounds. If you have prediabetes, get your blood glucose inspected every year by a physician or nurse.4.
How is diabetes treated?
Diabetes treatment includes handling your blood sugar levels to manage your signs. You can assist control your blood sugar levels by consuming healthy and getting regular physical activity.
With type 1 diabetes, you also will require to take insulin through shots or an insulin pump. Insulin can not be taken as a pill.
Type 2 diabetes treatment also might include taking medication to manage your blood sugar. Gradually, people with type 2 diabetes earn less and less of their own insulin. This might suggest that you will need to increase your medications or begin taking insulin shots to keep your diabetes in control.
Find out more about controlling diabetes at the National Diabetes Education Program site.
Is there anything I can do to prevent type 1 diabetes?
Scientists do not understand how to avoid type 1 diabetes. Researchers are still looking for methods to avoid type 1 diabetes in women and women by studying their close family members who have diabetes.
Is there anything I can do to prevent type 2 diabetes?
Yes. Lots of research studies, including the big Diabetes Avoidance Program research study, have shown that you can avoid diabetes by losing weight. Weight loss through healthy consuming and more physical activity improves the way your body utilizes insulin and glucose.
• If you’re overweight or obese, begin making little modifications to your eating routines and get more physical activity. Even a small quantity of weight loss (7%, or about 14 pounds for a 200-pound female) can postpone or even prevent type 2 diabetes.
• Pick vegetables, entire grains (such as whole wheat or rye bread, entire grain cereal, or brown rice), beans, and fruit. Limit processed foods and sugary foods and beverages.
• Getting active. Go for thirty minutes of exercise most days of the week and restrict the amount of time you spend sitting.
Is it safe for females with diabetes to get pregnant?
Yes. You can have a healthy pregnancy if you have type 1 or type 2 diabetes. If you have diabetes and you wish to have a child, you require to plan ahead, before you get pregnant.
Speak to your medical professional prior to you get pregnant. He or she can speak with you about steps you can require to keep your child healthy. This may consist of a diabetes education program to help you better comprehend your diabetes and how to manage it throughout pregnancy.
My recommendation: The Diabetic Cookbook for Beginners
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2017). National diabetes statistics report, 2017 (PDF file, 1.4 MB).
- Coustan, D. R. (Ed). (2013). Medical management of pregnancy complicated by diabetes. 5th edition. Alexandria, VA: American Diabetes Association.
- Filippi, C. M., & von Herrath, M. G. (2008). Viral trigger for type 1 diabetes. Diabetes, 57(11), 2863–2871.
- American Diabetes Association. (2013). Standards of medical care in diabetes — 2013. Diabetes Care, 36(Suppl. 1), S11–66.
- National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. (NIDDK). (2017). Type 1 diabetes.
- Menke, A., Orchard, T. J., Imperatore, G., Bullard, K. M., Mayer-Davis, E., & Cowie, C. C. (2013). The prevalence of type 1 diabetes in the United States. Epidemiology, 24(5), 773–774.
- Pulgaron, E. R., & Delamater, A. M. (2014). Obesity and type 2 diabetes in children: Epidemiology and treatment. Current Diabetes Reports, 14(8), 508.
- Dabelea, D., Mayer-Davis, E. J., Saydah, S., Imperatore, G., Linder, B., Divers, J., … Hamman, R. F., for the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth Study. (2014). Prevalence of type 1 and type 2 diabetes among children and adolescents from 2001 to 2009. JAMA, 311(17), 1778–1786.
- Mayer-Davis, E. J., Lawrence, J. M., Dabelea, D., Divers, J., Ison, S., Dolan, L., … Wagenknecht, L., for the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth Study. (2017). Incidence trends of type 1 and type 2 diabetes among youths, 2002-2012. New England Journal of Medicine, 376(15), 1419–1429.
- CDC. (2018). Leading causes of death in females, 2015 (current listing).
- Blatt, A. J., Nakamoto, J. M., & Kaufman, H. W. (2011). Gaps in diabetes screening during pregnancy and postpartum. Obstetrics & Gynecology, 117, 61–68.
- American Diabetes Association. (n.d.). Depression(link is external).
- Pan, A., Lucas, M., Sun, Q., van Dam, R., Franco, O., Manson, J., … Hu, F. (2010). Bidirectional association between depression and type 2 diabetes mellitus in women(link is external). JAMA Internal Medicine, 170(21), 1884–1891.
- Eliasson, B. (2003). Cigarette smoking and diabetes. Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases, 45(5), 405–413.
- NIDDK. (2013). Diabetic neuropathies: The nerve damage of diabetes.
- U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2014). The health consequences of smoking—50 years of progress: A report of the Surgeon General. Atlanta: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health, 537–545.
- CDC. (2013). Women at high risk for diabetes: Physical activity, healthy eating, and weight loss (PDF, 865 KB).